What is Gastric Bypass Surgery?

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric bypass surgery is a surgery involving the stomach and small intestine. A surgeon specializing in this type of surgery divides the stomach into two sections. There is an upper section and a lower section. The upper section is much smaller than the lower section. The upper section will serve as the “new” stomach. When the surgeon is done separating the sections of the stomach, he then connects the lower intestine to the upper section.

How is Gastric Bypass Surgery done

There are two ways that a gastric bypass surgery can be done. The first way is for a surgeon to cut an 8-10 inch incision in the patients abdomen. He then goes in and takes surgical staples and divides the stomach into two sections. After this is completed, he cuts the small intestine and connects it to the upper section.

The second way that a gastric bypass surgery can be done is by laproscopic surgery. This type of surgery is done by making several small incisions in the abdomen. After this is done, gas is pumped into the patients stomach to cause it to inflate. This makes it much easier for the surgeon to see inside. Next, the surgeon goes into the incisions with a laproscope and some surgical tools. A laproscope is a tool that has a light and camera on it and allows the surgeon to see what he is doing on the inside of the patients body. The surgeon continues with the surgery as stated above. The stomach is divided into two sections and then the small intestine is connected to the upper section.

Estimated hospital stay is 2-5 days. With the laproscopic surgery it may be less.

What is the purpose of Gastric Bypass Surgery

The purpose of the surgery is to help patients that are morbidly obese to lose weight. Morbid obesity can be defined as being 100 or more pounds overweight. Patients with a body mass index of 40 or higher are also considered morbidly obese.

What are some of the possible complications of Gastric Bypass Surgery

1. As with any surgery, there is always the possibility of complications with anesthesia. The risks become greater the heavier a patient becomes.
2. Some patients develop gallstones after gastric Bypass Surgery surgery.
3. Some patients develop a bleeding ulcer where the small intestine attaches to the stomach.
4. Some patients develop malnutrition because they are unable to hold down food.
5. Some patients experience cramping and diarrhea after eating sweets or too many fats.
6. Scar tissue can also develop between the stomach and the small intestine. This can cause vomiting.
7. Scar tissue can develop inside of the intestines. If this happens there can become a bowel obstruction.
8. Sometimes the surgical staples start to break-down. When this happens stomach fluids can leak into the patients abdomen.
9. Death

What are the possible positive outcomes of Gastric Bypass Surgery

1. With proper nutrition a patient can lose a great amount of weight.
2. Many times health related issues will get better. Some of these issues are high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
3. Many times the patients self-esteem will increase and depression will decrease.
4. Patients report that they feel less tired and it is easier for them to be mobile.

The Small Intestine

small intestine

In our previous post we talked about large intestine and its great importance as one of the major segments of the digestive system. Now it is time to deal with one organ similar in function and importance – small intestine. Also, keep in mind following: just like the large intestine is called the large bowel, we call small intestine the small bowel.

The small intestine represents long and highly convoluted tube. It is part of the digestive system. Its function is absorption of about 90% of the nutrients from the food. It processes around 2 gallons of food, liquids, and digestive secretions every day.

The small intestine is made up of four layers of tissue, just like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. These four layers are: the mucosa, the submucosa layer, the muscularis layer and the serosa. The mucosa forms the inner layer of epithelial tissue. It is specialized in absorption of nutrients from chyme. The submucosa layer provides support to the mucosa on the surface by blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. The muscularis layer is made of several layers of smooth muscle tissue. It helps in contraction and movements of the small intestines. Lastly, the serosa, which forms the outermost layer of epithelial tissue, surrounds the intestines.

As it is a complex organ, there is a large number of possible conditions that may affect the function of the small intestine. Some are common, with almost 10% of people being affected at some point in life, while others are extremely rare.


Structure of the small intestine

The average length of the small intestine in an adult male is 6.9 m and in an adult female 7.1 m. It can vary greatly from 4.6 m to 9.8 m. This means that small intestine is almost twice the length of the large intestine. However, it is approximately 2,5-3 cm in diameter – less than half the diameter of large intestine.

The small intestine is divided into three different parts:


Duodenum is the first section of the small intestine. It represents a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm long that connects the stomach to the jejunum. When it comes to duodenum function, it is responsible for the breakdown of food with help of the enzymes.


Jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine – lies between the duodenum and the ileum. It measures around 1 meter in length. Function of the lining of the jejunum is the absorption of small nutrient particles which have been previously digested by enzymes in the duodenum.


Ileum is the final section of the small intestine. It is about 2–4 m long. The function of the ileum is absorption of the vitamin B12, bile salts and other products of digestion that were not absorbed by the jejunum.


Functions of the small intestine

Digestion: The small intestine is where most digestion takes place. The pancreas secretes most of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine. They enter the small intestine through the pancreatic duct in response to the hormone cholecystokinin. Also, the hormone secretin causes bicarbonate release into the small intestine from the pancreas, all in order to neutralize acid coming from the stomach, which could possibly be harmful.

Absorption: Digested food is after that able to pass into the blood vessels of the wall of the intestine. Most of the nutrients from ingested food are absorbed in the small intestine. To be more precise, absorption of the nutrients happens in the jejunum. Of course, there are some exceptions:

  • Iron is absorbed in the duodenum,
  • Vitamin B12 and bile salts are absorbed in the ileum,
  • Water and lipids are absorbed throughout the small intestine by passive diffusion,
  • Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport,
  • Fructose is absorbed by facilitated diffusion.

Immunological: Another important role of the small intestine is support of the body’s immune system. The presence of probiotic flora contributes to the host’s immune system.

The Large Intestine

The Large Intestine

One of the major segments of the digestive system is, of course, the large intestine, also known as large bowel. That is a long, convoluted canal that performs the finishing part of gastro-intestinal mechanism. It absorbs the leftover fluids, salts, vitamins etc. The large bowel joins the posterior ends of small bowel at caecum and runs in the same direction – to reach rectum.


Parts of the large intestine

The large intestine is divided into five segments, based on spatial and functional distinction: viz. ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. In the beginning of large bowel, there is appendix: finger-shaped, hollow tubular structure. There is still no conclusion of the digestive function of this part in the body.


Functions of the large intestine

The large intestine, or large bowel, has many different functions, which are going to be listed in the following text.

  1. Absorption: It absorbs, as mentioned before, leftovers of fluids, salts/mineral ions, vitamins, etc.
  2. Faeces Formation: Another important role is conversion of indigestible material into faeces for excretion.
  3. Habitation For Bacteria: The large intestine provides a shelter and maintains more than 500 bacterial species that synthesize a number of useful products for human body.
  4. Fermentation: Related to the previous function – waste and indigestible food are fermented with the help of bacterial action present there.
  5. Faeces Storage: In addition, large bowel is temporary storing the waste material. After that, it is emptied out of the body through anus.
  6. Excretion: Finally, last, but very important function is elimination of stool (indigestible and fermented part of dietary components) through anal opening.


Unfortunately, there are many different types of ailments when we talk about large bowel. Some of them may be benign, while other may be chronic and cause many problems.  Luckily, there is a treatment for most of the problems. Some of the treatments include dietary measures, medications and even surgical therapy. When it comes to major diseases of large bowel we list following: Appendicitis, IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), UC (Ulcerative Colitis), Colorectal Cancer, Diverticulitis, Colonic Polyps… Of course, there are many others, but these are  the most regular.

Appendicitis is an inflammatory condition of appendix. It is caused by trapped food particles and the only cure in case of pus formation is, unfortunately, surgical removal.

Colorectal cancer is common among elder people (50+).  The risk of getting this disease is increasing with the age. It’s the fourth most common cancer type among Americans.

Colonic polyps represent growth of extra tissue in the lining of the large bowel. This may cause cancer and has to be surgically removed out of the body.

Ulcerative colitis represent following condition: ulcerous abnormality arising in the large bowel or in its rectal region. Its symptoms are pain and bloody diarrhea. This can occur any time, but usually starts at the age of 15 to 30 years.

Diverticulitis is characterized by infection or inflammatory disorder of pouches in the large intestine. This can be cured through antibiotics, pain killer medications and liquid diet supplementation.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes irritation and difficulty in the passage of bowels. It is followed by abdominal pain, cramping and other similar symptoms. Some of the best cures for IBS are supplemental diet, stress management and use of medications, but it is important to be treated at the early developmental stage.

Functions of the Bone Marrow

bone marrow

The bone marrow is the soft, spongy connective tissue within bone cavities. Its prime function is blood cell production and fat storage. Bone marrow is highly vascular – it is supplied with many blood vessels. Also, it contains red marrow, which is mayor until the adolescence, and yellow marrow, which amount increases in time. There are hundreds of billions of new blood cells generated every day. Adults have on average about 2.6kg of bone marrow, with almost half of it red.

Bone marrow has two main types of stem cells: hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in red marrow, and mesenchymal stem cells. Function of the first is, as mentioned previously, production of blood cells. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells produce the non-blood cell components of marrow: fat, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, and bone cells.

Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat severe diseases of the bone marrow, including certain forms of cancer. In addition, bone marrow stem cells have been successfully transformed in neural cells. It can potentially be used to treat illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease.

The normal bone marrow can be affected by malignancies or infections such as tuberculosis, which leads to a decrease in the production of blood cells and blood platelets. Moreover, cancers of the hematologic progenitor cells in the bone marrow can arise (these are the leukemia).


Red Marrow

Red marrow is mostly confined to skeletal system bones of the skull, pelvis, spine, ribs, sternum, shoulder blades, and near the point of attachment of the long bones of the arms and legs.  Apart from main function – production of the blood cell – red marrow helps to remove old cells from circulation. There are also other organs with the same function of filtrate aged and damaged blood cells from the blood, such as spleen and liver. Hematopoietic stem cells, which are part of the red marrow, produce myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells.

Myeloid stem cells develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.

  • Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes. These cells transport oxygen to body cells and deliver carbon dioxide to the lungs.
  • Platelets are also called thrombocytes. These cells aid in the blood clotting process.
  • White blood cells are also known as granulocytes. They include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. These immune cells defend the body against foreign invaders like bacteria, viruses etc.

On the other hand, 
lymphoid stem cells develop into lymphoblast cells, which produce other types of white blood cells including lymphocytes.


Yellow Marrow

Yellow marrow consists primarily of fat cells. It is composed of hematopoietic tissue that has become inactive. Also, it has poor vascular supply. Yellow marrow is found in spongy bones and in the medullary cavity – the hollow interior of the middle portion of long bones. In case that blood supply is extremely low, yellow marrow can convert to red marrow in order to produce more blood cells.

Male Reproductive Organs and Functions

Male Reproductive Organs and Functions

Last time we emphasized the importance of knowing everything about human reproductive system. Previously we focused on female reproductive system and now it is to deal with the facts about male reproductive organs and functions.

The human male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that are, unlike the female, located mostly externally, around the pelvic region. These external structures include penis, scrotum and testicles.

There are three main functions of the organs included in male reproductive system:

  • Produce, maintenance, and transport of the sperm and protective fluid (semen),
  • Discharging of the sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex,
  • Produce and secreting of the male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system. 


As already mentioned, there are three external organs in male reproductive system: penis, scrotum and testicles.



The penis is the male copulatory organ. It has three parts: the root, the body (or shaft) and the glans. The root attaches to the wall of the abdomen. The glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis, is also called the head of the penis. It is covered with a foreskin – loose layer of skin. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.

Shape of the penis is cylindrical. It consists out of three circular shaped chambers that are made up of sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. When filled with blood, penis becomes rigid and erect. The skin on penis is loose and elastic in order to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. The flow of urine is blocked from the urethra when the penis is erect. This way only semen can be ejaculated at orgasm through the end of the penis.




The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testes and also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum’s function is a control of the testes temperature. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. Special muscles located in the wall of the scrotum allow moving the testicles closer or farther away from the body to warm up or cool down the temperature.


Testicles (testes)


These are oval organs that lie in the scrotum, secured by a structure called the spermatic cord. They are sized as a large olive and most men have two. The testes are responsible for making testosterone and for generating sperm. Within the testes are seminiferous tubules responsible for sperm cells production.



Internal organs of the male reproductive system are also called accessory organs. They include epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.

Epididymis is a long, coiled tube located on the backside of each testicle. Its function is transport and storage of sperm cells which are produces in the testes. Also, it brings the sperm to maturity, so that it can fertilize. During the sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into vas deferens.

Vas deferens is a long, muscular tube which connects epididymis and the pelvic cavity. It transports mature sperm cells to the urethra.

Ejaculatory ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. They empty into the urethra.

Urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. When the penis erect, the flow of the urine is blocked in urethra and only semen can be ejaculated during orgasm.

Seminal vesicles are attached to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. They produce a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy. That helps in sperm’s moving. Also, man ejaculatory fluid contains mostly this fluid.

Prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure located below the bladder, in front of the rectum. Its fluid is also ejaculated and it helps in nourishing the sperm. Urethra runs trough the center of this organ.

Bulbourethral glands are also known as Cowper’s glands. They are pea-sized structured. Located on the side of the urethra, just below the prostate gland, they produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid lubricates the urethra and neutralizes any acidity possibly caused by drops of urine.




Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone are the main hormones involved in the male reproductive system and entire system depends on them. They regulate the activity of many different types of cells or organs. Follicle-stimulating hormone is important for sperm production that is called spermatogenesis. Luteinizing hormone, on the other hand, help in the production of testosterone, which is also necessary for sperm making process. Finally, testosterone is responsible for the development of male characteristics, such as muscle mass, bone mass, facial hair growth, voice change etc.

Female Reproductive Organs And Functions

It is essential for both men and women to know everything about female reproductive system – organs included and all of their functions. Female reproductive system has two main parts: the uterus and the ovaries. Function of the uterus is hosting of the developing fetus, production of vaginal and uterine secretions and passing the male’s sperm through to the Fallopian tubes. On the other hand, the ovaries produce female’s egg cells. All of this mentioned above is located internally, so we call it internal organs. When it comes to external organs, which are also important, vagina meets external organs at the vulva.

As shown on image, the vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix and the uterus to the ovaries through the Fallopian tubes.

Female Reproductive Organs

We already said that the ovaries release at certain intervals egg cells (Latin: ova, ovum), which pass through the Fallopian tube into the uterus. If during this transition egg cell meets sperm, it will be fertilized. During the reproductive process, the egg releases certain molecules which guides sperm and allows egg cell to attach to the sperm’s surface. In that moment egg can absorb the sperm and fertilize. This process usually happens in the oviduct, but it is not impossible to happen in the uterus as well. The zygote – fertilized egg – then implants itself in the wall of the uterus. There begins the process of embryogenesis and morphogenesis.  When developed enough, the cervix dilates and with help of the contractions fetus is thrown out through the birth canal (vagina).

The egg cell or ova, as said before, is larger than sperm and formed by time a female is born. Every month one egg cell matures and goes down attached to Fallopian tube. If not fertilized, this egg is thrown out the system and this process is called menstruation.


The ovaries

The ovary is reproductive organ that produces ovum (egg cells). It exists in pairs in female reproductive system. They are analogous to testes in male individuals.  Each ovary is whitish in color and about 4cm x 3 cm x 2 cm in size. They are located alongside the lateral wall of the uterus, in a region called the ovarian fossa.  In most of the cases, each ovary releases an egg every month. Still, it is possible that one ovary is absent or dysfunctional and in that case the other ovary would continue providing eggs for release. Ovaries also produce estrogen, testosterone and progesterone. As women age, they experience a decline in reproduction. This leads to menopause.



Fallopian Tubes

The Fallopian tubes are also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (Latin: salpinx, salpinges). They are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries into the uterus. These tubes are named after their discoverer Gabriele Falloppio, 16th century Italian anatomist. In a woman’s body the tube allows passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus. It has several different segments: the infundibulum, the ampullary, the isthmus and the interstitial.Fallopian Tubes



The uterus (Latin: uterus, uteri) or womb (as it supports developing of fetus during pregnancy) is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ. It is located inside the pelvis immediately dorsal to the urinary bladder and ventral to the rectum. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 7.6 cm x 4.5 cm x 3.0 cm large.  A nonpregnant adult uterus weighs about 60 grams. The uterus anatomically has four segments: the fundus, corpus, cervix and the internal os. On superior end it is connected to the Fallopian tubes and on the inferior end to the vagina (via the cervix). The inner lining of the uterus is known as the endometrium and it provides support to the embryo during early development. Also, the visceral muscles of the uterus contract during childbirth.




The cervix lies between the uterus and vagina. It is also called the neck of the uterus. The cervix has a central canal and an internal and external opening. It is usually 2-3 cm long. Half of its length is visible to the naked eye. The ectocervix is the part of the cervix exposed to the vagina. After sexual intercourse, sperm must travel through the cervix to fertilize an egg. It is also important in contraception and childbirth.




The vagina is a muscular and elastic tube that connects cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the body. It mainly functions for the facilitation of sexual intercourse and childbirth, as it can stretch and allow delivery of the fetus. Also, during menstruation, menstrual flow exits through the vagina. Males usually have only one genital orifice, while females have two – the urethra and the vagina. The vaginal opening is much larger than the urethral opening, and both openings are protected by the labia.

vagina anatomy



The vulva is collective name for the external female genitalia. It is located in the pubic region of the body. It includes the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of vestibule, vulval vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and the opening of the vagina. The vulva also contains the opening of the urethra. The vulva has a sexual function – these external organs provide pleasure when properly stimulated.




Spleen is an organ found in all vertebrates, including humans. It is a lymphatic organ which is extremely important for immune system. His primary function is blood filtration – it removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood. Spleen is often said to be similar to a large lymph node. Reason for that is the fact that absence of this organ can cause infections.

In humans, spleen has brownish color and its location is upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is shaped as loose fist. The average adult spleen weights 0.44 lbs. (approx. 200 g) and it gets bigger if infected with malaria or mononucleosis.

Even though spleen is derived from mesenchyme, it shares same blood supply as the foregut organs (celiac trunk).



Spleen’s main function is to, as already mentioned, filtrate the blood. It recognizes and removes old, harmful or damaged red blood cells, while healthy blood cells pass trough spleen.

While filtrating, spleen is saving all the useful things from damaged blood cells which are going to be removed. Best example is iron, which can be reused in new cells.

Another great function of the spleen is blood storing. The blood vessels in human spleens are able to get wider or narrower, so it can hold up to one cup of reserve blood. In case that something happens to your body and you lose blood, your spleen can release everything reserved into your system.

Apart from these functions, spleen has important role in immune system – it helps your body fight against various infections and bacteria. When infected, spleen and lymph node create lymphocytes – type of white blood cells that produce antibodies. Antibody is a special protein that weakens or kills any bacteria, viruses or other dangerous organisms in your body. This way it stops infection to spread in your body.




Splenomegaly represents enlargement of the spleen. Reasons for this are numerous diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, malaria, leukemia, tumors, pernicious anemia, bacterial endocarditis, Gaucher’s disease etc. The most common cause of acute splenomegaly in children is viral infection, which is transient and usually moderate.


Asplenia is absence of normal-functioning spleen that can be caused by surgical removal or can be congenital. Also, there is a case of autosplenectomy, where disease damaged spleen so much that it becomes shrunken and non-functional. Without a spleen it is more likely for someone to get certain infection, but nevertheless it can be removed without jeopardizing of life.

Having all of its characteristics in mind, spleen is almost always treated by complete removal. Untreated damage of spleen can lead to internal hemorrhaging and eventual death.



Disorders of the spleen can be diagnosed in many ways. Some of them are:

  • Physical examination: done by tapping along the left-upper quadrant of the abdomen, where the spleen is located.
  • Blood tests such as a CBC
  • Ultrasound
  • Abdominal film or CT scan
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Other tests

The physician is also obligated to ask variety of questions to see whether there are symptoms of enlarged spleen or not.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

symptoms of tuberculosis

Tuberculosis or TB is an age old lethal malady caused primarily by the bacterium called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It tends to reside in those areas of the human body which are rich in Blood & Oxygen. It affects the lungs predominantly as well as other body parts.

A person infected with the germs might not have the disease actually, as the defense mechanism of the person is strong enough to prevent the growth of microorganisms further. In such a case the person is said to have Latent TB or TB bacilli. People with the infection but inactive disease do not show any symptoms. In such case they are advised to undergo a “Protein Purified Derivative Test” which will render a positive result after three months of acquiring the infection and remain positive through their lifetime.

While if the immune system of the body malfunctions due to prolonged drug/alcohol abuse, diabetes, AIDS or malnutrition then the person will no longer be able to fight against the germs and will be infected with what is called Active TB. In such case the person has potential to spread it to others by means of talking, spiting, coughing or sneezing in public.

Active TB is also classified in different forms as follow;

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis

The immune system fails to combat the initial infection in about 5% people. Within a year they develop active tuberculosis. Commonly found in infants.

Symptoms of Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  1. A cough persisting since two weeks, with bloody mucus or sputum like ejaculation.
  2. Fever having a temperature more than 100.4 degree F with occasional chills.
  3. Night sweats
  4. Constant fatigue or tiredness
  5. Loss of appetite or hunger
  6. Sudden unexpected weight loss
  7. Swelling in neck
  8. Breathlessness or breathing trouble which gets worse with time
  9. Pain in chest with breathing trouble

Post-primary or reactivation pulmonary tuberculosis

95% of people infected successfully deactivate the disease and never let it activate. In remaining 5% the bacteria multiplies quickly destroy the lungs badly

Symptoms of Post Primary or Reactivation Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  1. In general a feeling of being unwell
  2. Fatigue & tiredness
  3. Deprived appetite
  4. Unable to manage weight
  5. Night perspirations
  6. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis spreads to other body parts like skin, bladder, kidney, brain, bone, spine, lymph nodes and testis irrespective of it affecting the lungs.

Symptoms are of the various extra-pulmonary tuberculosis are as follows

Tuberculosis of Spine or Pott’s disease

  1. Back pain accompanied with fever and anorexia
  2. Development of a hunchback or kyphosis
  3. Numbness and tingling sensation in lower back
  4. Sufferer tends to walk in a stiff upright manner
  5. Pain in legs and thighs

Tuberculosis Meningitis

  1. Constant headache
  2. Stiffness and pain in neck
  3. Drowsiness and seizures
  4. Muscle weakness
  5. Blurred vision
  6. Lethargy and vomiting

Renal tuberculosis or TB of kidney

There are no particular symptoms of renal TB apart from kidney inflammation or enlargement accompanied with formation of cysts. Also there might be kidney pain with formation of lumps. Loss of appetite, fever, night chills are also present.

Cutaneous TB or tuberculosis of skin

There are many types of cutaneous TB which are Lupus vulgaris, Military TB, Tuberculid, Scrofuloderma and TB verrucosa cutis. Almost all the types of skin TB has the initial symptom of a lesion termed as tuberculous chancre. They are granular based ulcers. The lesions are generally small purplish or reddish spots mostly affecting the knees, buttocks, feet, hands and elbows. These lesions can be cured with treatment but might leave scars and even skin cancer.

Tuberculosis of bladder

  1. Tendency to urinate quite often
  2. Burning sensation on urination
  3. Urine might contain blood as well

Tuberculosis of lymph nodes

  1. Pain in neck
  2. Swelling of the lymph nodes
  3. Fluid discharge from the nodes

Disseminated tuberculosis

By the mode of bloodstream, tuberculosis spreads throughout the entire body.

What is Tuberculosis?


Tubercles Bacillus, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis or TB as it is known primarily,  is a very deadly and contagious disease. Research states that it kills on an average more than two million sufferers on a yearly basis. However,  if detected at an early stage and with proper medication it can be completely cured.

It predominantly affects the lungs, but it can affect other body parts as well. It can be stated as an air borne malady as it easily gets spread through air. When an affected person cough, sneeze, talk or spit in public the bacteria can easily propel through air and infect others. But it is not that easily spread, usually it is seen to be spread amongst members of family of an infected person. It generally spreads in confined spaces over an extended period of time. Once a healthy person breathes in the germs, he or she can develop Active TB within weeks, months or years depending on their body’s immune system. This will be discussed later in detail.

It is actually caused by mycobacteria called mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium has a tendency to grow very slowly in those areas of human body which are rich in Oxygen & Blood. Thus it is mainly found to be affecting the lungs and is termed as Pulmonary TB in this case. When affecting other body parts as mentioned above; it is termed as Extra-pulmonary TB. The latter is not spread as easily as pulmonary TB.

Types of Tuberculosis:

It has known to be affecting at least one-third of the entire population of the world. TB exists in two stages; either it is Active or Latent

Active Tuberculosis

In Active TB, the bacterium is growing at a very fast rate in your infected lungs. A person infected with Active TB will be imparting the contagion to at least 15 people with sneezing, coughing, talking or spitting.

Latent Tuberculosis

In latent TB, The bacterium is present in your body but the body’s immune system is strong enough not to turn it active. Any symptoms won’t be present but the chances of the dormant bacterium turning active are very high only if the immune system becomes weak. Until then it will lie for ages inside your body protected by a dense waxy covering. Medication is advised to people having Latent TB or TB bacilli so that they do not succumb to having Active TB.

With widespread of AIDS causing HIV virus the rate at which people are getting infected with TB has increased by far since the 1980’s. A person, who is HIV positive and has Latent TB or TB bacilli, is more likely to develop Active TB as compared to a person who is HIV negative and having TB Bacilli. This is because being HIV positive weakens the person’s immune system very much and makes the TB bacilli infected person more susceptible to develop Active TB. Same is with a person who has either diabetes, history of drug/alcohol abuse, aged, has no means to proper medical care, is malnourished and is carrying TB bacilli.

Warning signs:

The classic symptoms or indications in case of a person infected with Pulmonary TB are that of:

  • Coughing up enough to give out blood (mucus or septum) for a prolonged period of more than fifteen days.
  • Chest pain with trouble in breathing.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fever often accompanied with chills.
  • Loss of weight unexpectedly.
  • Tiredness, weakness and fatigue most of the times.
  • Night sweats.
  • Swelling in the neck.

If not treated at an early stage TB can prove fatal as well.

Completing the entire course of recommended medication is very important while undergoing a treatment of curing TB. If medication is left half way or not properly followed, it leads to Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB). This poses a greater threat later on as certain TB germs or bacterium make themselves resilient to effects of TB curing prescriptions. These resistant germs can lead to causing Active TB which now becomes even more difficult to cure, as the effect of drugs on these germs is close to nil now. MDR-TB can be potentially prevented if the instructions of the doctor are followed dutifully.


Based on pathogenesis, Tuberculosis is clinically classified into 5 classes from 0 to 5;

Class 0

The type is of “No exposure to TB” or “Not Infected” and in such case there is a “negative” reaction to tuberculin skin test.

Class 1

The type is of “TB exposure” but “No evidence of infection” and upon having “History of exposure” this class leads to “negative” reaction to tuberculin skin test

Class 2

The type is of “TB infection” yet “No disease”. The tuberculin skin test will render a “positive” result but “bacteriologic studies” will be “negative”

Class 3

The type is of “Clinically active TB” and the “Radiographic or Clinical evidence” is found to be present

Class 4

The type is of “TB which is not clinically active”. In this case a number of evidences exist. They are “Positive” to tuberculin skin test. “Negative” to bacteriological test (if done), and “Stable but abnormal” radiographic discoveries.

Class 5

This type is of “TB suspect” and if the diagnosis is pending or delayed then Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is bound to happen in within three months or so.

As discussed previously extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is the one which affects various other parts of the human body apart from lungs. Though, it is also caused by the same bacterium. Usually this disease infects spine (Pott’s disease), stomach (Gastrointestinal tuberculosis), bone, skin (Cutaneous tuberculosis), brain (Meningitis tuberculosis), kidney (Renal tuberculosis), testis (Tuberculosis of genitourinary tract), lymph nodes and bladder.

M. tuberculosis has been the major killing disease since centuries, though the bacterium causing it was found just a century ago in 1882 by Robert Koch, a Prussian Physician. Since then researchers across the globe are working laboriously in tandem with each other for discovering new drugs, medicines and tools by applying molecular methods to combat it. It was declared a “global Emergency” by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. And in 1995 the World Bank came up with DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, short-course).Under this scheme since 1995 close to 18 million affected people have been treated successfully.

About Human Body Systems

human body system

Human as a creation of God’s most precious is continuously researched as a living system called human body system. This effort is being attempted due to the fact that humans fundamentally are social beings, proven by the diseased conditions and the recovery efforts themselves.
To research the anatomy as a human body system and prevent the worst situation; the funds, resources, and time have been greatly invested which are surely not big deals for people who could afford it. Nevertheless, not all people who study human body systems, especially medical students who are going to the private universities that come up with a huge tuition, could manage it.
In the other hand, to dissect the human anatomy as a human body system will be clarified as a complicated works as the existence of the following reasons:

  • Brain – Starts ageing at 20
  • Gut – Starts ageing at 55
  • Breast – Start ageing at 35
  • Bladder – Starts ageing at 65
  • Lungs – Start ageing at 20
  • Voice – Starts ageing at 65
  • Eyes – Start ageing at 40
  • Heart – Starts ageing at 40
  • Liver – Starts ageing at 70
  • Kidneys – Starts ageing at 50
  • Prostate – Starts ageing at 50
  • Bones – Start ageing at 35
  • Teeth – Start ageing at 40

Furthermore, human body systems are related to the type of human body organ which have the following function:

  • Brain as we get older, the number of nerve cells – or neurons – in the brain decrease
  • Gut a healthy gut has a good balance between harmful and ‘friendly’ bacteria
  • Breast by their mid-30s, women’s breasts start losing tissue and fat, reducing size and fullness.
  • Loss of bladder control is more likely when you hit 65.
  • Lung capacity slowly starts to decrease from the age of 20.
  • Our voices become quieter and hoarser with age.
  • Glasses are the norm for many over-40s
  • The heart pumps blood less effectively around the body as we get older.
  • The liver is the only organ in the body which seems to defy the ag ing process.
  • With kidneys, the number of filtering units (nephrons) that remove waste from the bloodstream starts to reduce in middle age.
  • The prostate often becomes enlarged with age, leading to problems such as increased need to urinate.
  • Until our mid-20s, bone density is still increasing. But at 35 bone loss begins as part of the natural ageing process.
  • As we age, we produce less saliva, which washes away bacteria, so teeth and gums are more vulnerable to decay.