Symptoms of Tuberculosis

symptoms of tuberculosis

Tuberculosis or TB is an age old lethal malady caused primarily by the bacterium called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It tends to reside in those areas of the human body which are rich in Blood & Oxygen. It affects the lungs predominantly as well as other body parts.

A person infected with the germs might not have the disease actually, as the defense mechanism of the person is strong enough to prevent the growth of microorganisms further. In such a case the person is said to have Latent TB or TB bacilli. People with the infection but inactive disease do not show any symptoms. In such case they are advised to undergo a “Protein Purified Derivative Test” which will render a positive result after three months of acquiring the infection and remain positive through their lifetime.

While if the immune system of the body malfunctions due to prolonged drug/alcohol abuse, diabetes, AIDS or malnutrition then the person will no longer be able to fight against the germs and will be infected with what is called Active TB. In such case the person has potential to spread it to others by means of talking, spiting, coughing or sneezing in public.

Active TB is also classified in different forms as follow;

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis

The immune system fails to combat the initial infection in about 5% people. Within a year they develop active tuberculosis. Commonly found in infants.

Symptoms of Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  1. A cough persisting since two weeks, with bloody mucus or sputum like ejaculation.
  2. Fever having a temperature more than 100.4 degree F with occasional chills.
  3. Night sweats
  4. Constant fatigue or tiredness
  5. Loss of appetite or hunger
  6. Sudden unexpected weight loss
  7. Swelling in neck
  8. Breathlessness or breathing trouble which gets worse with time
  9. Pain in chest with breathing trouble

Post-primary or reactivation pulmonary tuberculosis

95% of people infected successfully deactivate the disease and never let it activate. In remaining 5% the bacteria multiplies quickly destroy the lungs badly

Symptoms of Post Primary or Reactivation Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  1. In general a feeling of being unwell
  2. Fatigue & tiredness
  3. Deprived appetite
  4. Unable to manage weight
  5. Night perspirations
  6. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis spreads to other body parts like skin, bladder, kidney, brain, bone, spine, lymph nodes and testis irrespective of it affecting the lungs.

Symptoms are of the various extra-pulmonary tuberculosis are as follows

Tuberculosis of Spine or Pott’s disease

  1. Back pain accompanied with fever and anorexia
  2. Development of a hunchback or kyphosis
  3. Numbness and tingling sensation in lower back
  4. Sufferer tends to walk in a stiff upright manner
  5. Pain in legs and thighs

Tuberculosis Meningitis

  1. Constant headache
  2. Stiffness and pain in neck
  3. Drowsiness and seizures
  4. Muscle weakness
  5. Blurred vision
  6. Lethargy and vomiting

Renal tuberculosis or TB of kidney

There are no particular symptoms of renal TB apart from kidney inflammation or enlargement accompanied with formation of cysts. Also there might be kidney pain with formation of lumps. Loss of appetite, fever, night chills are also present.

Cutaneous TB or tuberculosis of skin

There are many types of cutaneous TB which are Lupus vulgaris, Military TB, Tuberculid, Scrofuloderma and TB verrucosa cutis. Almost all the types of skin TB has the initial symptom of a lesion termed as tuberculous chancre. They are granular based ulcers. The lesions are generally small purplish or reddish spots mostly affecting the knees, buttocks, feet, hands and elbows. These lesions can be cured with treatment but might leave scars and even skin cancer.

Tuberculosis of bladder

  1. Tendency to urinate quite often
  2. Burning sensation on urination
  3. Urine might contain blood as well

Tuberculosis of lymph nodes

  1. Pain in neck
  2. Swelling of the lymph nodes
  3. Fluid discharge from the nodes

Disseminated tuberculosis

By the mode of bloodstream, tuberculosis spreads throughout the entire body.

What is Tuberculosis?


Tubercles Bacillus, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis or TB as it is known primarily,  is a very deadly and contagious disease. Research states that it kills on an average more than two million sufferers on a yearly basis. However,  if detected at an early stage and with proper medication it can be completely cured.

It predominantly affects the lungs, but it can affect other body parts as well. It can be stated as an air borne malady as it easily gets spread through air. When an affected person cough, sneeze, talk or spit in public the bacteria can easily propel through air and infect others. But it is not that easily spread, usually it is seen to be spread amongst members of family of an infected person. It generally spreads in confined spaces over an extended period of time. Once a healthy person breathes in the germs, he or she can develop Active TB within weeks, months or years depending on their body’s immune system. This will be discussed later in detail.

It is actually caused by mycobacteria called mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium has a tendency to grow very slowly in those areas of human body which are rich in Oxygen & Blood. Thus it is mainly found to be affecting the lungs and is termed as Pulmonary TB in this case. When affecting other body parts as mentioned above; it is termed as Extra-pulmonary TB. The latter is not spread as easily as pulmonary TB.

Types of Tuberculosis:

It has known to be affecting at least one-third of the entire population of the world. TB exists in two stages; either it is Active or Latent

Active Tuberculosis

In Active TB, the bacterium is growing at a very fast rate in your infected lungs. A person infected with Active TB will be imparting the contagion to at least 15 people with sneezing, coughing, talking or spitting.

Latent Tuberculosis

In latent TB, The bacterium is present in your body but the body’s immune system is strong enough not to turn it active. Any symptoms won’t be present but the chances of the dormant bacterium turning active are very high only if the immune system becomes weak. Until then it will lie for ages inside your body protected by a dense waxy covering. Medication is advised to people having Latent TB or TB bacilli so that they do not succumb to having Active TB.

With widespread of AIDS causing HIV virus the rate at which people are getting infected with TB has increased by far since the 1980’s. A person, who is HIV positive and has Latent TB or TB bacilli, is more likely to develop Active TB as compared to a person who is HIV negative and having TB Bacilli. This is because being HIV positive weakens the person’s immune system very much and makes the TB bacilli infected person more susceptible to develop Active TB. Same is with a person who has either diabetes, history of drug/alcohol abuse, aged, has no means to proper medical care, is malnourished and is carrying TB bacilli.

Warning signs:

The classic symptoms or indications in case of a person infected with Pulmonary TB are that of:

  • Coughing up enough to give out blood (mucus or septum) for a prolonged period of more than fifteen days.
  • Chest pain with trouble in breathing.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fever often accompanied with chills.
  • Loss of weight unexpectedly.
  • Tiredness, weakness and fatigue most of the times.
  • Night sweats.
  • Swelling in the neck.

If not treated at an early stage TB can prove fatal as well.

Completing the entire course of recommended medication is very important while undergoing a treatment of curing TB. If medication is left half way or not properly followed, it leads to Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB). This poses a greater threat later on as certain TB germs or bacterium make themselves resilient to effects of TB curing prescriptions. These resistant germs can lead to causing Active TB which now becomes even more difficult to cure, as the effect of drugs on these germs is close to nil now. MDR-TB can be potentially prevented if the instructions of the doctor are followed dutifully.


Based on pathogenesis, Tuberculosis is clinically classified into 5 classes from 0 to 5;

Class 0

The type is of “No exposure to TB” or “Not Infected” and in such case there is a “negative” reaction to tuberculin skin test.

Class 1

The type is of “TB exposure” but “No evidence of infection” and upon having “History of exposure” this class leads to “negative” reaction to tuberculin skin test

Class 2

The type is of “TB infection” yet “No disease”. The tuberculin skin test will render a “positive” result but “bacteriologic studies” will be “negative”

Class 3

The type is of “Clinically active TB” and the “Radiographic or Clinical evidence” is found to be present

Class 4

The type is of “TB which is not clinically active”. In this case a number of evidences exist. They are “Positive” to tuberculin skin test. “Negative” to bacteriological test (if done), and “Stable but abnormal” radiographic discoveries.

Class 5

This type is of “TB suspect” and if the diagnosis is pending or delayed then Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is bound to happen in within three months or so.

As discussed previously extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is the one which affects various other parts of the human body apart from lungs. Though, it is also caused by the same bacterium. Usually this disease infects spine (Pott’s disease), stomach (Gastrointestinal tuberculosis), bone, skin (Cutaneous tuberculosis), brain (Meningitis tuberculosis), kidney (Renal tuberculosis), testis (Tuberculosis of genitourinary tract), lymph nodes and bladder.

M. tuberculosis has been the major killing disease since centuries, though the bacterium causing it was found just a century ago in 1882 by Robert Koch, a Prussian Physician. Since then researchers across the globe are working laboriously in tandem with each other for discovering new drugs, medicines and tools by applying molecular methods to combat it. It was declared a “global Emergency” by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. And in 1995 the World Bank came up with DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, short-course).Under this scheme since 1995 close to 18 million affected people have been treated successfully.

About Human Body Systems

human body system

Human as a creation of God’s most precious is continuously researched as a living system called human body system. This effort is being attempted due to the fact that humans fundamentally are social beings, proven by the diseased conditions and the recovery efforts themselves.
To research the anatomy as a human body system and prevent the worst situation; the funds, resources, and time have been greatly invested which are surely not big deals for people who could afford it. Nevertheless, not all people who study human body systems, especially medical students who are going to the private universities that come up with a huge tuition, could manage it.
In the other hand, to dissect the human anatomy as a human body system will be clarified as a complicated works as the existence of the following reasons:

  • Brain – Starts ageing at 20
  • Gut – Starts ageing at 55
  • Breast – Start ageing at 35
  • Bladder – Starts ageing at 65
  • Lungs – Start ageing at 20
  • Voice – Starts ageing at 65
  • Eyes – Start ageing at 40
  • Heart – Starts ageing at 40
  • Liver – Starts ageing at 70
  • Kidneys – Starts ageing at 50
  • Prostate – Starts ageing at 50
  • Bones – Start ageing at 35
  • Teeth – Start ageing at 40

Furthermore, human body systems are related to the type of human body organ which have the following function:

  • Brain as we get older, the number of nerve cells – or neurons – in the brain decrease
  • Gut a healthy gut has a good balance between harmful and ‘friendly’ bacteria
  • Breast by their mid-30s, women’s breasts start losing tissue and fat, reducing size and fullness.
  • Loss of bladder control is more likely when you hit 65.
  • Lung capacity slowly starts to decrease from the age of 20.
  • Our voices become quieter and hoarser with age.
  • Glasses are the norm for many over-40s
  • The heart pumps blood less effectively around the body as we get older.
  • The liver is the only organ in the body which seems to defy the ag ing process.
  • With kidneys, the number of filtering units (nephrons) that remove waste from the bloodstream starts to reduce in middle age.
  • The prostate often becomes enlarged with age, leading to problems such as increased need to urinate.
  • Until our mid-20s, bone density is still increasing. But at 35 bone loss begins as part of the natural ageing process.
  • As we age, we produce less saliva, which washes away bacteria, so teeth and gums are more vulnerable to decay.


Understanding Regenerative Medicine by Dr. Rachna Mehra

Regenerative Medicine

There are a lot of things that people can benefit from regenerative medicine. In fact, this type of treatment helps people experience faster and better healing processes. The different techniques and technologies used in regenerative medicine creates a good environment that enables dead or damaged body tissues to regrow and regenerate into something that is new and healthy. Unfortunately, only a few professionals are able to perform this kind of treatment. One of these professionals or physicians is none other than Dr. Rachna Mehra.

Dr. Rachna Mehra is a doctor who does advanced procedures involving the transplant and manipulation of stem cells for them to be used in treating certain diseases in the body. Aside from these, Dr. Rachna also use scaffold materials in order to emit biochemical signals that enable to activate the stem cells. All of these regenerative therapies performed by Dr. Rachna have been tested for trials inside laboratories in order to ensure their effectiveness and safety in treating a problem or a disorder. Because of the wonderful effective of stem cell manipulation, there are already tons of diseases that can be treated including nerve damage, burns, blindness, broken bones, Parkinson’s disease, and other hereditary conditions.

In addition to this, regenerative medicine also allows patients to experience healthy longevity. In other words, it can help in prolonging life and slowing down the degeneration of the body. Because of the serious effects of aging, it can affect the overall functioning of the body. Nevertheless, with the help of these regenerative therapies conducted by Dr. Rachna Mehra, the root causes of these age-linked degenerative conditions can be targeted and eliminated.

One of the many wonderful benefits of regenerative medicine is its positive effects in curing cancer. Aside from this, regenerative medicine also helps alleviate pain and suffering, which can also be associated with the effects of aging. Because of this, a lot of people are grateful to the wonderful contributions of Dr. Rachna. She was able to help thousands of people overcome diseases and survive their debilitating consequences. Aside from regenerative medicine, Dr. Rachna also does other aesthetic procedures such as laser treatments, Juvaderm, Botox, and Restylane. She also assesses the nutritional status of her patients and evaluates them holistically in order to create positive changes in their health. This enables Rachna Mehra MD to alter the course of some common diseases and conditions in the body including dementia, heart disease, hypertension, and increase blood cholesterol.

Respiratory System Infographic

Are you searching for respiratory system infographic? Here is one that we suggest you too look for:

Respiratory System Infographic


How To Master the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology

If you really want to master the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology then you should remember these 3 things. First, If you already have a job- then you need to quit it to be able to focus on this new career path. Next, expect to be sleepless in days, weeks, even months. And lastly, say goodbye to your friends, and to your social life. I am not kidding you know. If you really want to master human anatomy you should be patient, and really focus on your goals.
All in all, there are more than 2,001 body parts and you need to learn all about them, where those parts are, and how they relate to the other body parts, etc. There’s no shortcut in mastering the human anatomy. You need an overwhelming amount of materials and you need to study it in a short amount of time.
The biggest mistake I notice that students make is their study habits. Why? They rely heavily on their reading materials and spend lots of their time reading instead of actually learning it. Reading is not actually learning you know and it is just a form of learning- passive learning. It is just like reading a “how to drive a car” book, and yes it makes sense but you won’t be able to drive a car until you get behind the wheel and practice driving, am I right?!

Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology

So, how do you start driving in the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology? Well.. what you need to learn about active learning, writing, speaking, and drawing. Here are some reminders:

  1. Firstly, Read the chapters. You must comprehend the material before you start memorizing each of the body parts. Do not read, skim through all the topics, and highlight certain words – believe me it’s just a waste of time.
  2. Do not plan on rewriting certain topics or the whole chapter in your own words. Just focus more on key concepts in human body oarts, or relationships for the physiology.
  3. Old school learning such as use of Flashcards for definitions. Remember the flashcards that you use when you’re still young. It’s indeed very helpful. You can write the Main topic or Word on the front, and the definition or the meaning on the back. You can also replace the main topic or word on the front by pictures.
  4. Share your knowledge and teach it to someone else, as it is a proven method of learning where all your ideas will really stick to your brain if you will share it with others.
  5. Use online resources like Google, and You Tube. Let’s say you can’t understand a certain concept. You can look for a You Tube video for visual tools. Just choose the ones with the most views!
  6. Practice makes perfect. Study well, and make up your own questions. If you feel that your knowledge in the anatomy of human body is not enough, study more, practice! Have faith in yourself! You can do this.

Become A Personal Trainer – Specialize in the Anatomy of Human Body

If you want to be an athletic trainer, or simply interested in sports, or teaching people the right ways to exercise to avoid injuries or recover from injuries & illness, then you need to have a passion for sports and health care. Not only that, you should also have Bachelor’s Degree in athletic training or any Sports science, or better yet a Graduate Degree and specializes in the Anatomy of human body, biology, human skeletal system, physiology , strength training, care of injuries, proper exercises, kinesthetics, biomechanics, nutrition, & other professional skills.

anatomy of human

There are some private companies that will require you to undergo a clinical training. By the way, if you really wanted to pursue a career here, then make sure that the program that you will be taking is accredited by CAATE – Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Why? This is a requirement and will make you eligible to take the licensing exam. As of this writing, there are 350 accredited training programs here in the United States. To practice an athletic trainer or a fitness trainer, one must be licensed by the BOC Board of Certification, Inc. and here are their exam requirements:

  • Bachelor’s Degree from a CAATE-accredited athletic training program
  • An endorsement letter from the Program Director of your training program school
  • You need to have a passing grade on the exam

Before you become an athletic or a fitness trainer, you will learn lots of thing during your school years, and the topics that you will cover include human anatomy and physiology, body organs, human skeletal system,and etc..It is a school profession I must say as you will find yourself working with athletes, professional players, sportsmen, employees in an industrial company, and patients in a rehab center.

There are many job opportunities in this field of business. You can have an employment with a sports park or arena, high school or college, private industry, or in a sports team.

Nowadays, athletic trainers are in demand, professional sports teams rely heavily on them and are always in the look out for athletic trainers who will help them during their training practices, games, help them prepare for their sport , and of course to take care of their players’ injuries.

Colleges, Universities, and High schools need athletic trainers to educate their athletes as well as their students on proper exercise, sports practices, prevent stress disorders, and anatomy of human body 101. Physicians also need fitness or personal trainers because they provide a customized and effective exercise for their patients, as well as physical fitness plans for those people with health problems.

Hospitals & healthcare facilities now rely on fitness or athletic trainers to help them with the rehabilitation of their patients who have sustained injuries. Even, industrial managers are rely on fitness or athletic trainers to prevent such work-related injuries. Just a reminder, you should also have have good people skills to become successful in this field. Not only that, you should also have a, strong sense of responsibility, for you to be able to handle emergency situations.

The good news is that in this field, you can expect a much faster-than-average growth rate for the next couple of years, especially in schools, recreational centers, as well as in the hospitals. Just to give you a heads up, the average annual salary in this profession is roughly around $44,050. Experienced trainers or those with higher degrees may earn more, and the pay scale varies by geographic region.


Tuberculosis, often called TBC, is chronic bacterial infection that can spread through lymph nodes and bloodstream to any human organ, but generally it catches lungs. An active bacterium corrodes a tissue of the infected organs which can be deadly. After entering the organism, microorganisms stay inactive which means that with therapy, most infected people never get an active form of the disease. Bacteria that causes Tuberculosis is air transmitted. Because of that, the disease can be very contagious. Still, it is almost impossible to get infected just by walking next to a person that has Tuberculosis. To be in danger of getting infected, a person needs to be exposed to microorganisms while living or working with someone who has an active disease. But even then, only 10 percent of the people would get an active form. 90 percent has no signs of infection nor can infect someone. Latent infections can become active in time, and even people with no symptoms would have to take therapy. Used to be wide spread, Tuberculosis today is very rare, thanks to antibiotic therapy developed in the 50s.
Tuberculosis is most commonly caused by microscopic spatter in the air that contains bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as Tuberculosis bacilli. Transmission almost never happens with clothes or linen. If you are spending 8 hours a day every day for 6 months with someone who has the disease you have 50 percent more chances to get infected. People with malnutrition problem are more likely to get sick.
To diagnose Tuberculosis, doctors use skin test. A tiny quantity of a material called PPD Tuberculin is injected just underneath the skin of your inside forearm. Doctor will check your arm in the next few days and if the skin is red and with a bump, it means you got infected. But is does not mean that the form is an active one. Chest X/ray can also be of help in diagnosis, as well as blood tests. Blood tests measure how your immune system reacts to TB bacteria. Medications are crucial in Tuberculosis treatment. Infected person needs to take antibiotics for several months, somewhere between six and nine. Most common medications used in treatment are: Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide. Side effect can be: loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness, fever.
It is very important to complete the treatment.
Human organs that can also be affected with tuberculosis are: heart, bones, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system.

Liver cancer

Liver is a human organ that has huge importance. Its responsible fur functions crucial to life. It is one of the largest organs and certainly the heaviest.
Liver constantly filters the blood that circles the body. It changes nutrition ingredients and medicine absorbed in digestive tract into chemical substance ready to usage. Liver also eliminates toxins as well as wasted blood products and prepares them for excretion.
All the blood in human body has to get through liver. That makes liver very accessible to cancer cells circulating the blood. Ironically, while liver can clear the body from outside and inside created toxins, it cannot clear itself from cancer. Most cases of liver cancer are secondary or metastatic, which means that cancer cells were created somewhere else in the body, most likely pancreas, colon, lungs or breast. Two percent of all liver cancers are primary, created in liver – hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma. A person will probably get liver cancer, after hepatitis infection.
Primary liver cancer occurs on liver damaged with hepatitis B or C, or cirrhosis. More that half people diagnosed with liver cancer have cirrhosis.
A lot of carcinogenic substances are connected with liver cancer, for example medicines for cholesterol reduction, herbicides or chemicals like arsenic. Male hormones, steroids and androgens, taken by athletes, can cause liver tumor that can lead to liver cancer. Aflatoxins – group of chemicals produced by certain mold fungi, can also be involved.
liver cancer
To diagnose liver cancer, a doctor has to exclude other reasons for symptoms appearance. Blood analysis that shows tumor indicator can help with diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT scan can discover tumor existence. But the only way to distinguish benign tumor from the malignant one is with biopsy procedure. Cancer in general, is very hard to cure. Primary liver cancer is rarely discovered in the early stages when it’s easier to treat. Secondary cancer is hard to treat because of metastasis. Surgical operation is a huge risk since blood vessels net in liver is a very complex one. Most treatments are about getting to feel better and maybe live longer. The best prognoses have people with tumors discovered in the early stages. But sadly, most are inoperable. Transplantation of human organs including liver is an option in cancer treatment. Radiation and chemo can reduce tumor size, but mostly just reduce pain. People that are ill are getting pain killers or medicine for appetite.

Alcohol’s Effects on Human Organs

Symptoms connected with alcohol abuse: temporary dizziness, memory loss, fights with family members, constant use of alcohol for relaxation, drinking to feel normal, broken face capillary, shaky hands, headache, and insomnia, and sickness, constant diarrhea, drinking alone, in the morning and secretly.
Excessive amount of alcohol is poisonous for body systems and human organs and it’s considered a drug. Almost 100 000 Americans die every year from alcohol abuse. Alcohol has an important role in almost half of murders, suicides and car accidents in the country. Also, it affects family life and work.

Chronic alcoholism is a progressive, potentially deadly disease which distinguishes its self with constant alcohol craving, increased alcohol tolerance, physical addiction and concentration loss caused by alcohol use. Alcoholism can lead to a number of severe problems such as hypoglycemia, kidney disease, and brain and heart damage, chronic gastritis. Alcoholism can also cause impotence, fetus damage in pregnancies, and danger from throat cancer, esophagus cancer, and stomach cancer. People who drink a lot usually have liver problems. One in 5 people ends up with liver cirrhosis. This disease has an additional complication which is denial. Alcoholics usually blame other things for their problems, never alcohol. That kind of behavior puts recovery on hold. Through history, alcoholism was considered to be a sign of a weak personality. Today, it’s considered to be a disease that can affect anyone. The point of laws and educational programs is to try to stop alcohol abuse. That is a very hard thing to do, because social pressure and market play huge role in promoting use and misuse of alcohol. It seems that alcoholism is caused by a mix of genetic, physical, psychological and social factors. Genetic factors are especially dangerous. Danger for someone to become an alcoholic is 4 to 5 times bigger if they have alcoholic family member.

alcohol and human organs

Negative effects on human organs are huge. That’s why a recovery is very important. The goal is abstinence. In recovery process, one of the important things is family support. Alcoholism can be treated conventionally and unconventionally. Conventional medicine uses well known medications, mostly antidepressants. Unconventional medicine knows number of ways: acupuncture, physical therapy, medical plants, hydrotherapy etc.