Tuberculosis, often called TBC, is chronic bacterial infection that can spread through lymph nodes and bloodstream to any human organ, but generally it catches lungs. An active bacterium corrodes a tissue of the infected organs which can be deadly. After entering the organism, microorganisms stay inactive which means that with therapy, most infected people never get an active form of the disease. Bacteria that causes Tuberculosis is air transmitted. Because of that, the disease can be very contagious. Still, it is almost impossible to get infected just by walking next to a person that has Tuberculosis. To be in danger of getting infected, a person needs to be exposed to microorganisms while living or working with someone who has an active disease. But even then, only 10 percent of the people would get an active form. 90 percent has no signs of infection nor can infect someone. Latent infections can become active in time, and even people with no symptoms would have to take therapy. Used to be wide spread, Tuberculosis today is very rare, thanks to antibiotic therapy developed in the 50s.
Tuberculosis is most commonly caused by microscopic spatter in the air that contains bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as Tuberculosis bacilli. Transmission almost never happens with clothes or linen. If you are spending 8 hours a day every day for 6 months with someone who has the disease you have 50 percent more chances to get infected. People with malnutrition problem are more likely to get sick.
To diagnose Tuberculosis, doctors use skin test. A tiny quantity of a material called PPD Tuberculin is injected just underneath the skin of your inside forearm. Doctor will check your arm in the next few days and if the skin is red and with a bump, it means you got infected. But is does not mean that the form is an active one. Chest X/ray can also be of help in diagnosis, as well as blood tests. Blood tests measure how your immune system reacts to TB bacteria. Medications are crucial in Tuberculosis treatment. Infected person needs to take antibiotics for several months, somewhere between six and nine. Most common medications used in treatment are: Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide. Side effect can be: loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness, fever.
It is very important to complete the treatment.
Human organs that can also be affected with tuberculosis are: heart, bones, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system.
Liver is a human organ that has huge importance. Its responsible fur functions crucial to life. It is one of the largest organs and certainly the heaviest.
Liver constantly filters the blood that circles the body. It changes nutrition ingredients and medicine absorbed in digestive tract into chemical substance ready to usage. Liver also eliminates toxins as well as wasted blood products and prepares them for excretion.
All the blood in human body has to get through liver. That makes liver very accessible to cancer cells circulating the blood. Ironically, while liver can clear the body from outside and inside created toxins, it cannot clear itself from cancer. Most cases of liver cancer are secondary or metastatic, which means that cancer cells were created somewhere else in the body, most likely pancreas, colon, lungs or breast. Two percent of all liver cancers are primary, created in liver – hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma. A person will probably get liver cancer, after hepatitis infection.
Primary liver cancer occurs on liver damaged with hepatitis B or C, or cirrhosis. More that half people diagnosed with liver cancer have cirrhosis.
A lot of carcinogenic substances are connected with liver cancer, for example medicines for cholesterol reduction, herbicides or chemicals like arsenic. Male hormones, steroids and androgens, taken by athletes, can cause liver tumor that can lead to liver cancer. Aflatoxins – group of chemicals produced by certain mold fungi, can also be involved.
To diagnose liver cancer, a doctor has to exclude other reasons for symptoms appearance. Blood analysis that shows tumor indicator can help with diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT scan can discover tumor existence. But the only way to distinguish benign tumor from the malignant one is with biopsy procedure. Cancer in general, is very hard to cure. Primary liver cancer is rarely discovered in the early stages when it’s easier to treat. Secondary cancer is hard to treat because of metastasis. Surgical operation is a huge risk since blood vessels net in liver is a very complex one. Most treatments are about getting to feel better and maybe live longer. The best prognoses have people with tumors discovered in the early stages. But sadly, most are inoperable. Transplantation of human organs including liver is an option in cancer treatment. Radiation and chemo can reduce tumor size, but mostly just reduce pain. People that are ill are getting pain killers or medicine for appetite.
Symptoms connected with alcohol abuse: temporary dizziness, memory loss, fights with family members, constant use of alcohol for relaxation, drinking to feel normal, broken face capillary, shaky hands, headache, and insomnia, and sickness, constant diarrhea, drinking alone, in the morning and secretly.
Excessive amount of alcohol is poisonous for body systems and human organs and it’s considered a drug. Almost 100 000 Americans die every year from alcohol abuse. Alcohol has an important role in almost half of murders, suicides and car accidents in the country. Also, it affects family life and work.
Chronic alcoholism is a progressive, potentially deadly disease which distinguishes its self with constant alcohol craving, increased alcohol tolerance, physical addiction and concentration loss caused by alcohol use. Alcoholism can lead to a number of severe problems such as hypoglycemia, kidney disease, and brain and heart damage, chronic gastritis. Alcoholism can also cause impotence, fetus damage in pregnancies, and danger from throat cancer, esophagus cancer, and stomach cancer. People who drink a lot usually have liver problems. One in 5 people ends up with liver cirrhosis. This disease has an additional complication which is denial. Alcoholics usually blame other things for their problems, never alcohol. That kind of behavior puts recovery on hold. Through history, alcoholism was considered to be a sign of a weak personality. Today, it’s considered to be a disease that can affect anyone. The point of laws and educational programs is to try to stop alcohol abuse. That is a very hard thing to do, because social pressure and market play huge role in promoting use and misuse of alcohol. It seems that alcoholism is caused by a mix of genetic, physical, psychological and social factors. Genetic factors are especially dangerous. Danger for someone to become an alcoholic is 4 to 5 times bigger if they have alcoholic family member.
Negative effects on human organs are huge. That’s why a recovery is very important. The goal is abstinence. In recovery process, one of the important things is family support. Alcoholism can be treated conventionally and unconventionally. Conventional medicine uses well known medications, mostly antidepressants. Unconventional medicine knows number of ways: acupuncture, physical therapy, medical plants, hydrotherapy etc.
Alternative medicine sees health as a balance between different systems in human body, mental, emotional and spiritual, physical as well. All aspects are interconnected – it’s a principle called holism which means state of wholeness or completeness. It’s considered that every dissonance presents stress for organism and can lead to illness. In illness prevention, alternative medicine knows many different ways of therapy in order to improve and strengthen defensive system of human body and between human organs. One of the better known therapies is Acupuncture.
Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese theory about meridians – channels of energy for which is believed to be spread through body, carrying life force or energy called chi.
Chi is main principle in martial arts and customary Chinese medicine.
With this therapy, chi flow is controlled with needles (thin as hair) being inserted into certain places called acupuncture points in the skin. Whereas in the past needles were made of stone, today’s knows modern methods such as laser acupuncture. Acupuncture should be performed by enabled practitioner.
Average treatment consists of 5 to 15 insertions of thin needles. They can penetrate only few millimeters deep (tip of the fingers) or even 7 to 10 centimeters (where thick layer of adipose tissue or muscles exist). The procedure rarely hurts, even though some burning or burden can be felt. Apart from inserting needles or instead of, people who decide to do acupuncture, can choose treatment called Moxibustion. It’s composed of bringing the heat directly above the place for acupuncture, with burning fluff of herbs (mugwort – a tall Eurasian plant with small brownish flower heads that is common on waste ground and in hedge-rows) and aromatic plants, in order to bring balance among human organs.
Efficiency of Acupuncture is well proved in short term pain moderation. It is yet to be discovered how can stop or prevent long term pain. Acupuncture is efficient in rehabilitation after someone suffers a stroke and also in nausea (sickness) moderation. It is also recommended as a way of dealing with drug addiction problems. World health organization recognized Acupuncture as a healing method in 1979.
The spinal cord is a part of a human organs system that is the most important path for information that connects peripheral nervous system and the brain. Along with the brain, spinal cord is central part of somatic and autonomic nervous system. The spinal cord is shaped like a cylindar tape, about 45 centimeter long in men and 43 in women. It’s surrounded and protected by the bony vertebral column. It’s divided in 2 simetrical parts. Back part is long and shallow and front part looks like a deep crack. Spinal cord (medulla spinalis) consists of grey and white matter. Grey matter is located deep, around spinal cord central canal. In cross section , grey matter looks like a letter H, shaped like a butterfly and formed out of two horns and commissure. There are two types of horns, anterior and posterior. Anterior horn is short and broad. The anterior horn contains motor neurons which joined together affect the axial muscles. Cell bodies of alpha motor neurons are placed in the anterior horn. Posterior horn of spinal cord is narrow and long. It receiver different types of sensory information from the body such as proprioception, vibration., touch, sensation. Top of the posterior horn is extended with gelatin substance that contains number of neuroglia cells and neurons. Grey commisure, which consist of little nerve cells, contains centers of autonomic nervous system.White matter of the spinal cord is at the surface and it is divided by grey matter horns and spinal nerve roots into 3 so called bundles: frontal, side and back. Front ones are conncected with thick commissure. Back ones are divided by glial compartment. Spinal nerves get off with two roots that branch of the spinal cord and connect again passing out through a hole in each of the vertebrae named Foramen (foramen interventerbrale). Frontal Root contains Motor fibres and the back one contains sensitive nerve fibres.
There are four groups of spinal nerves and they are:
- Cervical nerves – C
- Thoracic nerves – T
- Lumbar nerves – L
- Sacral nerves – S
Cervical nerves are nerves in the neck. Thiracic nerves are nerves in the upper back, and Lumbar and Sacral are nerves in the lower back. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
What are organs? Organs are collections of tissues that are joined in a structural unit with purpose of serving a common function. They are consisted of a main tissue which is called parenchzma and sporadic tissues, that are called stroma. For a specific organ, the main tissue is the one that is unique fo the specific organ, while spradic tissues include nerves, blood and connective tissues. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems.
Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but they can also be identified in plans. Single-cell organisms, like bacteria, the functional analogues of organs arecalled organelles. A hollow organ is a visceral organ that is a hollow tube or pouch, such as the stomach or intestine, or that includes a cavity, like the heart or urinary bladder.
The origin of the English word “organ” is deriveted from the Latin organum, which means instrument, which is drawn from the Greek word organon, that means implement, musical instrument or organ of the body. The philosopher Aristotle used the word very often in his philosophy, both to descripe the organs of plants and animals and to describe more abstract pars of an interconnected whole.
More on the specific human organs will be presented to you in later texts.
Modern medicine knows many methods with which to explore the human body. Over time they have developed sophisticated machines that take pictures inside the human body, giving us incredible images of certain organs, sometimes in 3D format.
Depending on the area of medicine using the different methods by which we understand the overall picture of our physical state. The fact is that within the human body take place countless processes, many of them still do not known, but the medicine each day reveals new ways. Right now the focus is on the statement made by U.S. scientists that blood test can determine who will live longer with accuracy from 60 to 85 percent. Unbelievable, is not it!? Diagnostics is an area of medicine that deals with the constant finding new ways to better explore the area inside the human body. Sometimes, it is not necessary to scan your body in order to see that something is wrong. Some symptoms are clearly delineating the surface of the skin, eyes, etc… Thus, for example pale in the face often means anemia, fatigue, exhaustion, and others. However, the most accurate diagnosis occurs when all available methods incorporate parameters that indicate a particular disease.
Inside the human body take place countless parallel processes which together makes a balanced whole. What is happening inside our bodies causes the interest of scientists as well as the world around us and even space. Numerous documentary series have been dedicated to discovering the secrets that hide the human body. Today, at the time of digitalization there are number of sites where you can learn in great detail the ways in which the body works. LINK There are also video clips that show the more realistic our body.
Check here fascinating animation display inside the human body, its anatomy and physiology, but also the whole complexity of the surgery.
Here you can view last year’s animation.
For those who want to study the sky is the limit. Take you on an adventure inside the human body.
We are all heard about the world’s largest natural wonders. What actually is the greatest miracle of nature? Answer is the human body. Our body is a perfect blend of muscle, tissue, bones, cells that give people superiority over other living world.
The human body is the most perfect mechanism. Each and every atom in it has its own function complementing of other elements. If you serious percentile to observe how your body works you will find that none of the machines designed by humans not so perfect. Whether you believe that God created us or we evolved from apes, you can not deny that the complexity of the human body is what allows us to be on top of the food chain.
Over time so much has been discovered about the human body and through many studies were determine some facts that seem unbelievable. The following is a list of the most interesting facts about our bodies.
When laughter is used 17 muscles to frown and 43 muscles even
A man loses a day to 100 strands of hair, than the average how many there are 100,000 head
Loss of one eye man loses only 1 / 5 of vision
The human body has:
- Iron sufficient to produce a nail of 8 cm,
- Enough sulfur to kill all fleas on an average dog
- Enough carbon to produce 900 pencils
- Fat enough to produce seven soaps
- Enough phosphorus to produce 2.200 matches
The human body has over 600 muscles that make up 40% of the total weight of the man.
The human brain consists of 85% water
Every minute in the human body expires 300 million cells
The nervous system of adult total debt is over 70 kilometers
The average person in their lifetime produce enough saliva to fill two Olympic swimming pools
Each person has a unique fingerprint on your thumb hand
Fingerprint is formed by the three-month fetus
Brad has grown to over 10 meters in a man who never in his life would not have shaved
Every hour is the average human body peel 600,000 pieces of dried skin -- during the life of the average total weight over 50 pounds
Most men have erections every hour during sleep
The sound produced by snoring can reach up to 70 decibels, the equivalent volume of pneumatic hammers
The human bones are primary reinforcement of the human body. In total the human body has 206 bones, their main function are to support the body’s structure.
Latin Os, all the bones in the human body form the human skeleton and muscles along with creating a system for moving bodies. The skeleton of a human being is a unique structure that is adapted to the needs of twolegs movement and upright posture.
Human bones can not operate independently and are therefore associated joints and muscles, so the body can run at up to 45 km / h. The bones are solid and strong, hollow inside, so they are not heavy and are only 14% of our total body weight (lighter than muscle). The bones are not dead matter in our body, so when it breaks renewed. In addition to calcium, which makes the main mineral in bone composition, 10 percent of bone substance is water.
Human bones consists of several parts: bone tissue (solid and spongy), cartilage, periosteum, bone marrow. Solid bone tissue is pergamenata whit cannels surrounding by bone cells, which secrete in their gap calcium and phosphorus that gives bones strength. Therefore the constant need to consume food and drink rich with these minerals in order to maintain bone strength. Cartilage is a flexible supplement to the bones, whose main function is to reduce friction in the joints. Spongy bone tissue is filled with small cavities or mottled pillars that make bones strong but not too heavy. Periosteum surrounds the bone growth and strongly to it. It was made of a special connective tissue. Bone marrow is the tube cavity of long bones and cavities are filled with spongy tissue, bone marrow, which produces most of the blood cells.
Did you know?
- The smallest bone in the human body is the stirrup, which is located in the ear, is only 3 mm long
- The hand consists of 54 bones, including joints
- The only bone that is fully grown is the ear
- People are born with 300 bones in their body, but in old age have only a 206, cause it is incorporating some bone
- The human face is made up of 15 bones
- The nails of the fingers grow 4 times faster than toenails
- The thigh bone is stronger than concrete
- Femur, which is the longest and strongest bone in the body, is hollow
Osteoporosis -- the most common bone disease
As already pointed out calcium is the most important ingredient for the normal development of healthy human bones and maintain its strength. Sufficient intake of calcium affects the construction of the highest possible amount of bone mass, and whit age instrumental in slowing the loss of it.
The most common bone disease is osteoporosis. The bones, which were strong, become brittle due to osteoporosis and brittle. The movements, which should be normal, may, in patients with osteoporosis, easily lead to fractures. Most people do not know, to have osteoporosis until a bone is not broken.
Osteoporosis is characterized by loss of bone mineral density that causes bone weakness. The bones are permanently break down and rebuild. After thirty bone is gradually lost. If this loss becomes pronounced, it can cause a condition called osteoporosis. The bones become thin and brittle. Women lose bone faster performance menopause, when it begins to decrease levels of female sex hormone, estrogen.
Medicine is faced with the new challenge, to understand the regeneration of human organs, spontaneous and supported by technology. This challenge has been the focus of modern medicine, and many developed countries adjust their strategic plans focusing to a new form of treatment, regeneration. Spontaneous regeneration of complex vital organs – heart, lungs, limbs, it is not impossible, but it is still part of the distant future. Some human organs regenerate themselves during our lives, but to some extent.
The latest five-year campaign for the American security services worth $ 250 million and aims to help, above all, military and civilians who are accidentally left disabled. Also, this is the way to test the latest technology – the spontaneous regeneration of human organs of the patient. For good regeneration of human organs are good vegeterian food, check here for vegetarian cuisine and recipes.
Medicine has long been known that certain parts of the body receive a certain amount of cells capable of sharing in order to regenerate human organs, which should help them in case of injury. Idea is that cell division and redirect them outside the body. The newly formed cells capable of division would be placed in the so-called biodegradable mold, form one body part that is due to injury, damaged or lost. In this way ensures the success of one hundred percent recovery of the patient, unlike others in transplant organs.
Namely, the human body has a defense mechanism that transplanted tissue could be recognized as foreign, leading to his dismissal. As in the case of new methods is not about other people, but on emerging from the cell bodies of the patient, the possibility of contraindications is reduced to a minimum. The new, regenerative medicine and its methods allow the simple body parts such as skin, ears, nose, bladder, cartilage and blood vessels regenerate successfully with cells of the patient. However, complex regeneration of vital organs like the heart, lungs, arms and legs is now a matter of the future. Individuals claim that such a thing already done, although in the case of rat, not the human heart.