Understanding Regenerative Medicine by Dr. Rachna Mehra

Regenerative Medicine

There are a lot of things that people can benefit from regenerative medicine. In fact, this type of treatment helps people experience faster and better healing processes. The different techniques and technologies used in regenerative medicine creates a good environment that enables dead or damaged body tissues to regrow and regenerate into something that is new and healthy. Unfortunately, only a few professionals are able to perform this kind of treatment. One of these professionals or physicians is none other than Dr. Rachna Mehra.

Dr. Rachna Mehra is a doctor who does advanced procedures involving the transplant and manipulation of stem cells for them to be used in treating certain diseases in the body. Aside from these, Dr. Rachna also use scaffold materials in order to emit biochemical signals that enable to activate the stem cells. All of these regenerative therapies performed by Dr. Rachna have been tested for trials inside laboratories in order to ensure their effectiveness and safety in treating a problem or a disorder. Because of the wonderful effective of stem cell manipulation, there are already tons of diseases that can be treated including nerve damage, burns, blindness, broken bones, Parkinson’s disease, and other hereditary conditions.

In addition to this, regenerative medicine also allows patients to experience healthy longevity. In other words, it can help in prolonging life and slowing down the degeneration of the body. Because of the serious effects of aging, it can affect the overall functioning of the body. Nevertheless, with the help of these regenerative therapies conducted by Dr. Rachna Mehra, the root causes of these age-linked degenerative conditions can be targeted and eliminated.

One of the many wonderful benefits of regenerative medicine is its positive effects in curing cancer. Aside from this, regenerative medicine also helps alleviate pain and suffering, which can also be associated with the effects of aging. Because of this, a lot of people are grateful to the wonderful contributions of Dr. Rachna. She was able to help thousands of people overcome diseases and survive their debilitating consequences. Aside from regenerative medicine, Dr. Rachna also does other aesthetic procedures such as laser treatments, Juvaderm, Botox, and Restylane. She also assesses the nutritional status of her patients and evaluates them holistically in order to create positive changes in their health. This enables Rachna Mehra MD to alter the course of some common diseases and conditions in the body including dementia, heart disease, hypertension, and increase blood cholesterol.

Respiratory System Infographic

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Respiratory System Infographic


How To Master the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology

If you really want to master the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology then you should remember these 3 things. First, If you already have a job- then you need to quit it to be able to focus on this new career path. Next, expect to be sleepless in days, weeks, even months. And lastly, say goodbye to your friends, and to your social life. I am not kidding you know. If you really want to master human anatomy you should be patient, and really focus on your goals.
All in all, there are more than 2,001 body parts and you need to learn all about them, where those parts are, and how they relate to the other body parts, etc. There’s no shortcut in mastering the human anatomy. You need an overwhelming amount of materials and you need to study it in a short amount of time.
The biggest mistake I notice that students make is their study habits. Why? They rely heavily on their reading materials and spend lots of their time reading instead of actually learning it. Reading is not actually learning you know and it is just a form of learning- passive learning. It is just like reading a “how to drive a car” book, and yes it makes sense but you won’t be able to drive a car until you get behind the wheel and practice driving, am I right?!

Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology

So, how do you start driving in the Anatomy of Human Body and Physiology? Well.. what you need to learn about active learning, writing, speaking, and drawing. Here are some reminders:

  1. Firstly, Read the chapters. You must comprehend the material before you start memorizing each of the body parts. Do not read, skim through all the topics, and highlight certain words – believe me it’s just a waste of time.
  2. Do not plan on rewriting certain topics or the whole chapter in your own words. Just focus more on key concepts in human body oarts, or relationships for the physiology.
  3. Old school learning such as use of Flashcards for definitions. Remember the flashcards that you use when you’re still young. It’s indeed very helpful. You can write the Main topic or Word on the front, and the definition or the meaning on the back. You can also replace the main topic or word on the front by pictures.
  4. Share your knowledge and teach it to someone else, as it is a proven method of learning where all your ideas will really stick to your brain if you will share it with others.
  5. Use online resources like Google, and You Tube. Let’s say you can’t understand a certain concept. You can look for a You Tube video for visual tools. Just choose the ones with the most views!
  6. Practice makes perfect. Study well, and make up your own questions. If you feel that your knowledge in the anatomy of human body is not enough, study more, practice! Have faith in yourself! You can do this.

Become A Personal Trainer – Specialize in the Anatomy of Human Body

If you want to be an athletic trainer, or simply interested in sports, or teaching people the right ways to exercise to avoid injuries or recover from injuries & illness, then you need to have a passion for sports and health care. Not only that, you should also have Bachelor’s Degree in athletic training or any Sports science, or better yet a Graduate Degree and specializes in the Anatomy of human body, biology, human skeletal system, physiology , strength training, care of injuries, proper exercises, kinesthetics, biomechanics, nutrition, & other professional skills.

anatomy of human

There are some private companies that will require you to undergo a clinical training. By the way, if you really wanted to pursue a career here, then make sure that the program that you will be taking is accredited by CAATE – Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Why? This is a requirement and will make you eligible to take the licensing exam. As of this writing, there are 350 accredited training programs here in the United States. To practice an athletic trainer or a fitness trainer, one must be licensed by the BOC Board of Certification, Inc. and here are their exam requirements:

  • Bachelor’s Degree from a CAATE-accredited athletic training program
  • An endorsement letter from the Program Director of your training program school
  • You need to have a passing grade on the exam

Before you become an athletic or a fitness trainer, you will learn lots of thing during your school years, and the topics that you will cover include human anatomy and physiology, body organs, human skeletal system,and etc..It is a school profession I must say as you will find yourself working with athletes, professional players, sportsmen, employees in an industrial company, and patients in a rehab center.

There are many job opportunities in this field of business. You can have an employment with a sports park or arena, high school or college, private industry, or in a sports team.

Nowadays, athletic trainers are in demand, professional sports teams rely heavily on them and are always in the look out for athletic trainers who will help them during their training practices, games, help them prepare for their sport , and of course to take care of their players’ injuries.

Colleges, Universities, and High schools need athletic trainers to educate their athletes as well as their students on proper exercise, sports practices, prevent stress disorders, and anatomy of human body 101. Physicians also need fitness or personal trainers because they provide a customized and effective exercise for their patients, as well as physical fitness plans for those people with health problems.

Hospitals & healthcare facilities now rely on fitness or athletic trainers to help them with the rehabilitation of their patients who have sustained injuries. Even, industrial managers are rely on fitness or athletic trainers to prevent such work-related injuries. Just a reminder, you should also have have good people skills to become successful in this field. Not only that, you should also have a, strong sense of responsibility, for you to be able to handle emergency situations.

The good news is that in this field, you can expect a much faster-than-average growth rate for the next couple of years, especially in schools, recreational centers, as well as in the hospitals. Just to give you a heads up, the average annual salary in this profession is roughly around $44,050. Experienced trainers or those with higher degrees may earn more, and the pay scale varies by geographic region.


Tuberculosis, often called TBC, is chronic bacterial infection that can spread through lymph nodes and bloodstream to any human organ, but generally it catches lungs. An active bacterium corrodes a tissue of the infected organs which can be deadly. After entering the organism, microorganisms stay inactive which means that with therapy, most infected people never get an active form of the disease. Bacteria that causes Tuberculosis is air transmitted. Because of that, the disease can be very contagious. Still, it is almost impossible to get infected just by walking next to a person that has Tuberculosis. To be in danger of getting infected, a person needs to be exposed to microorganisms while living or working with someone who has an active disease. But even then, only 10 percent of the people would get an active form. 90 percent has no signs of infection nor can infect someone. Latent infections can become active in time, and even people with no symptoms would have to take therapy. Used to be wide spread, Tuberculosis today is very rare, thanks to antibiotic therapy developed in the 50s.
Tuberculosis is most commonly caused by microscopic spatter in the air that contains bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as Tuberculosis bacilli. Transmission almost never happens with clothes or linen. If you are spending 8 hours a day every day for 6 months with someone who has the disease you have 50 percent more chances to get infected. People with malnutrition problem are more likely to get sick.
To diagnose Tuberculosis, doctors use skin test. A tiny quantity of a material called PPD Tuberculin is injected just underneath the skin of your inside forearm. Doctor will check your arm in the next few days and if the skin is red and with a bump, it means you got infected. But is does not mean that the form is an active one. Chest X/ray can also be of help in diagnosis, as well as blood tests. Blood tests measure how your immune system reacts to TB bacteria. Medications are crucial in Tuberculosis treatment. Infected person needs to take antibiotics for several months, somewhere between six and nine. Most common medications used in treatment are: Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide. Side effect can be: loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness, fever.
It is very important to complete the treatment.
Human organs that can also be affected with tuberculosis are: heart, bones, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system.

Liver cancer

Liver is a human organ that has huge importance. Its responsible fur functions crucial to life. It is one of the largest organs and certainly the heaviest.
Liver constantly filters the blood that circles the body. It changes nutrition ingredients and medicine absorbed in digestive tract into chemical substance ready to usage. Liver also eliminates toxins as well as wasted blood products and prepares them for excretion.
All the blood in human body has to get through liver. That makes liver very accessible to cancer cells circulating the blood. Ironically, while liver can clear the body from outside and inside created toxins, it cannot clear itself from cancer. Most cases of liver cancer are secondary or metastatic, which means that cancer cells were created somewhere else in the body, most likely pancreas, colon, lungs or breast. Two percent of all liver cancers are primary, created in liver – hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma. A person will probably get liver cancer, after hepatitis infection.
Primary liver cancer occurs on liver damaged with hepatitis B or C, or cirrhosis. More that half people diagnosed with liver cancer have cirrhosis.
A lot of carcinogenic substances are connected with liver cancer, for example medicines for cholesterol reduction, herbicides or chemicals like arsenic. Male hormones, steroids and androgens, taken by athletes, can cause liver tumor that can lead to liver cancer. Aflatoxins – group of chemicals produced by certain mold fungi, can also be involved.
liver cancer
To diagnose liver cancer, a doctor has to exclude other reasons for symptoms appearance. Blood analysis that shows tumor indicator can help with diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT scan can discover tumor existence. But the only way to distinguish benign tumor from the malignant one is with biopsy procedure. Cancer in general, is very hard to cure. Primary liver cancer is rarely discovered in the early stages when it’s easier to treat. Secondary cancer is hard to treat because of metastasis. Surgical operation is a huge risk since blood vessels net in liver is a very complex one. Most treatments are about getting to feel better and maybe live longer. The best prognoses have people with tumors discovered in the early stages. But sadly, most are inoperable. Transplantation of human organs including liver is an option in cancer treatment. Radiation and chemo can reduce tumor size, but mostly just reduce pain. People that are ill are getting pain killers or medicine for appetite.

Alcohol’s Effects on Human Organs

Symptoms connected with alcohol abuse: temporary dizziness, memory loss, fights with family members, constant use of alcohol for relaxation, drinking to feel normal, broken face capillary, shaky hands, headache, and insomnia, and sickness, constant diarrhea, drinking alone, in the morning and secretly.
Excessive amount of alcohol is poisonous for body systems and human organs and it’s considered a drug. Almost 100 000 Americans die every year from alcohol abuse. Alcohol has an important role in almost half of murders, suicides and car accidents in the country. Also, it affects family life and work.

Chronic alcoholism is a progressive, potentially deadly disease which distinguishes its self with constant alcohol craving, increased alcohol tolerance, physical addiction and concentration loss caused by alcohol use. Alcoholism can lead to a number of severe problems such as hypoglycemia, kidney disease, and brain and heart damage, chronic gastritis. Alcoholism can also cause impotence, fetus damage in pregnancies, and danger from throat cancer, esophagus cancer, and stomach cancer. People who drink a lot usually have liver problems. One in 5 people ends up with liver cirrhosis. This disease has an additional complication which is denial. Alcoholics usually blame other things for their problems, never alcohol. That kind of behavior puts recovery on hold. Through history, alcoholism was considered to be a sign of a weak personality. Today, it’s considered to be a disease that can affect anyone. The point of laws and educational programs is to try to stop alcohol abuse. That is a very hard thing to do, because social pressure and market play huge role in promoting use and misuse of alcohol. It seems that alcoholism is caused by a mix of genetic, physical, psychological and social factors. Genetic factors are especially dangerous. Danger for someone to become an alcoholic is 4 to 5 times bigger if they have alcoholic family member.

alcohol and human organs

Negative effects on human organs are huge. That’s why a recovery is very important. The goal is abstinence. In recovery process, one of the important things is family support. Alcoholism can be treated conventionally and unconventionally. Conventional medicine uses well known medications, mostly antidepressants. Unconventional medicine knows number of ways: acupuncture, physical therapy, medical plants, hydrotherapy etc.


Alternative medicine sees health as a balance between different systems in human body, mental, emotional and spiritual, physical as well. All aspects are interconnected – it’s a principle called holism which means state of wholeness or completeness. It’s considered that every dissonance presents stress for organism and can lead to illness. In illness prevention, alternative medicine knows many different ways of therapy in order to improve and strengthen defensive system of human body and between human organs. One of the better known therapies is Acupuncture.
Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese theory about meridians – channels of energy for which is believed to be spread through body, carrying life force or energy called chi.

Chi is main principle in martial arts and customary Chinese medicine.
With this therapy, chi flow is controlled with needles (thin as hair) being inserted into certain places called acupuncture points in the skin. Whereas in the past needles were made of stone, today’s knows modern methods such as laser acupuncture. Acupuncture should be performed by enabled practitioner.
Average treatment consists of 5 to 15 insertions of thin needles. They can penetrate only few millimeters deep (tip of the fingers) or even 7 to 10 centimeters (where thick layer of adipose tissue or muscles exist). The procedure rarely hurts, even though some burning or burden can be felt. Apart from inserting needles or instead of, people who decide to do acupuncture, can choose treatment called Moxibustion. It’s composed of bringing the heat directly above the place for acupuncture, with burning fluff of herbs (mugwort – a tall Eurasian plant with small brownish flower heads that is common on waste ground and in hedge-rows) and aromatic plants, in order to bring balance among human organs.

Efficiency of Acupuncture is well proved in short term pain moderation. It is yet to be discovered how can stop or prevent long term pain. Acupuncture is efficient in rehabilitation after someone suffers a stroke and also in nausea (sickness) moderation. It is also recommended as a way of dealing with drug addiction problems. World health organization recognized Acupuncture as a healing method in 1979.

Spinal Cord

Spinal Cord

The spinal cord is a part of a human organs system that is the most important path for information that connects peripheral nervous system and the brain. Along with the brain, spinal cord is central part of somatic and autonomic nervous system. The spinal cord is shaped like a cylindar tape, about 45 centimeter long in men and 43 in women. It’s surrounded and protected by the bony vertebral column. It’s divided in 2 simetrical parts. Back part is long and shallow and front part looks like a deep crack. Spinal cord (medulla spinalis) consists of grey and white matter. Grey matter is located deep, around spinal cord central canal. In cross section , grey matter looks like a letter H, shaped like a butterfly and formed out of two horns and commissure. There are two types of horns, anterior and posterior. Anterior horn is short and broad. The anterior horn contains motor neurons which joined together affect the axial muscles. Cell bodies of alpha motor neurons are placed in the anterior horn. Posterior horn of spinal cord is narrow and long. It receiver different types of sensory information from the body such as proprioception, vibration., touch, sensation. Top of the posterior horn is extended with gelatin substance that contains number of neuroglia cells and neurons. Grey commisure, which consist of little nerve cells, contains centers of autonomic nervous system.White matter of the spinal cord is at the surface and it is divided by grey matter horns and spinal nerve roots into 3 so called bundles: frontal, side and back. Front ones are conncected with thick commissure. Back ones are divided by glial compartment. Spinal nerves get off with two roots that branch of the spinal cord and connect again passing out through a hole in each of the vertebrae named Foramen (foramen interventerbrale). Frontal Root contains Motor fibres and the back one contains sensitive nerve fibres.

There are four groups of spinal nerves and they are:

  • Cervical nerves – C
  • Thoracic nerves – T
  • Lumbar nerves – L
  • Sacral nerves – S

Cervical nerves are nerves in the neck. Thiracic nerves are nerves in the upper back, and Lumbar and Sacral are nerves in the lower back. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

spinal cord human organs


human organs

What are organs? Organs are collections of tissues that are joined in a structural unit with purpose of serving a common function. They are consisted of a main tissue which is called parenchzma and sporadic tissues, that are called stroma. For a specific organ, the main tissue is the one that is unique fo the specific organ, while spradic tissues include nerves, blood and connective tissues. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems.

Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but they can also be identified in plans. Single-cell organisms, like bacteria, the functional analogues of organs arecalled organelles. A hollow organ is a visceral organ that is a hollow tube or pouch, such as the stomach or intestine, or that includes a cavity, like the heart or urinary bladder.

The origin of the English word “organ” is deriveted from the Latin organum, which means instrument, which is drawn from the Greek word organon, that means implement, musical instrument or organ of the body. The philosopher Aristotle used the word very often in his philosophy, both to descripe the organs of plants and animals and to describe more abstract pars of an interconnected whole.

More on the specific human organs will be presented to you in later texts.